The City of Antipolo (Filipino: Lungsod ng Antipolo) is a 1st Class Component City in the Philippines located in the province of Rizal; about 25 kilometers east of Manila. It is the eighth most populous city in the country with a population of 633,971 in 2007.
It was converted from a municipality into a component city of Rizal Province on April 4, 1998 under Republic Act No. 8508. A new provincial capitol was inaugurated in the city in March 2009 to replace the old capitol in Pasig City which has long been outside the jurisdiction of Rizal Province; after Pasig was included in Metro Manila in 1975. With the transfer of the provincial government to Antipolo, it is highly favored to be officially designated as the new capital of the province.
The city is popular for being a pilgrimage site. It prides itself as the "Pilgrimage Capital of the Philippines. The Marian image of the Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage or the Virgin of Antipolo, which was brought in from Mexico in 1626, and enshrined in the Antipolo Cathedral has a continuous following among Filipino Catholics since the Spanish era. A popular custom of pilgrims to the Virgin of Antipolo is the trek going to its shrine on the eves of Good Friday and May 1 from various locations in Rizal Province and Metro Manila. Some pilgrims would begin the trek from Quiapo Church in Downtown Manila following the procession of the image. There is also an existing custom to have new cars blessed at the church in the belief that this will ensure the safety of the car and its passengers.
Its higher elevation than that of Metro Manila affords it a scenic view of the metropolis, especially at night. Its locally grown mangoes and cashews are popular among tourists, as well as suman – a local delicacy made out of sticky rice. The Hinulugan Taktak National Park, which was once a popular summer get-away is being restored to become again one of the city's primary attractions.
The city was named after the tipolo (breadfruit) tree (Artocarpus incisa), which was in abundance in the area.
Franciscan missionaries arrived in Antipolo in 1578, and built a church in Boso-Boso. They were soon replaced in 1591 by the Jesuits, who organized the village into a parish. By 1601, the Christian population of Antipolo had grown to about 3,000 as the indigenous Dumagat population dwindled and moved deeper into the interiors.
The Chinese revolt of 1602 reached Antipolo, which resulted to the razing of the church.
On March 25, 1626, the image now known as the Virgin of Antipolo was brought from Acapulco, New Spain (now Mexico) by Governor-General Juan Niño de Tabora, who relinquished the image to the Jesuits for Antipolo's church.
In 1650, the village was organized into a town and became part of Tondo Province. When the province was divided in 1853, Antipolo became a part of the District of San Mateo de los Montes, which later became the District of Morong.
The Recollects took over Antipolo in 1864. It was during these years that the Virgin of Antipolo gained a following of devotees. Devotees from Manila and nearby towns and provinces flock to Antipolo on foot or on hammocks, trekking along mountain trails and springs.
During the First Republic, the town served as the capital of Morong, until it was occupied by the Americans on 4 June 1899; the Revolutionary Government then transferred Morong's capital to Tanay. Soon after, the Americans established a civil government in 1901, Valentin Sumulong became the first municipal president. On 11 June 1901, Antipolo was incorporated into the newly established Province of Rizal, which included towns of Morong District and Manila Province. In 1903, Antipolo, Boso-Boso and Teresa were merged. The town's territory was expanded again in 1913 to add the sitios of Mayamot and Bulao; just to lose Teresa six years later to become an independent municipality. The Manila Railroad Company inaugurated a railway service to Antipolo on 24 December 1908.
During the Second World War, two guerrilla units operated in the town against the Japanese. They were the Hunters ROTC under Miguel Ver and Terry Adevoso and the Marking Filipino and American Troops, which were established and led by Marcos Villa Agustin, more popularly known under the name Brig. Gen. Agustin Marking. Many inhabitants were tortured and killed by the Japanese, including Mayor Pascual Oliveros and his son Reynaldo, Padre Eusebio Carreon, Padre Ariston Ocampo, Sis. Ma. Elizabeth Cagulanas, RVM, Sis. Ma. Consuelo Recio, RVM; Ambrosio Masangkay, Alfonso Oliveros and Atty. Francisco C. Gedang Sr.
The liberation of Antipolo from the Japanese forces was bloody and devastating. On 17 February 1945, Antipolo was heavily bombarded by American planes. Antipolo residents evacuated to Sitio Kulaike and up to the towns of Angono, Santolan, and Marikina. To protect the image from being destroyed, Procopio Angeles, then the sacristan mayor, and members of the community brought with them the Virgin of Antipolo. The bombings on 6-7 March 1945 destroyed the church and after twelve days of battle, the American and Filipino soldiers and local guerrillas liberated the town on 12 March 1945. After the war, a temporary church was built and the Virgin of Antipolo was returned from the Quiapo Church on 15 October 1945.
Information Source: WikePedia